Wednesday, July 18, 2018

Article Index

15.0 Anti-Microbial/Viral/Fungal Activity

The fruit of Annona spp. have been shown to have anti-microbial activities (Wiart et al., 2005) due to several compounds including:

  • Ent-kauranes
  • Acetogenins
  • Essential oils
  • Benzylisoquinolines alkaloids

Wiart et al. (2005) showed good anti-bacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of sugar apple fruit, and an isolated diterpene, against Staphylococcus aureus (sometimes called golden staph) and Streptococcus pneumoniae.  They suggested that that the extract could be a good source as a food preservative and as an antibiotic.  

Rios et al. 2003 showed in vitro antimicrobial activity of three essential oils of cherimoya fruit against five Gram (±) bacteria (Table 2).  Wu et aI (1996) found that kaurane diterpenoids in the fruits of Annona squamosa showed significant activity against HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells with an EC50 value of 0.8 ?g/mL (therapeutic index >5).

TABLE 2.
Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and fruits from cherimoya (Annona cherimola) (Rios et al., 2003). Note that the lower the concentration the more effective as a therapeutic agent.

  Minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/mL)
Sample Staphylococcus Enterococcus Escherichia Shigella Proteous Candida
  aureus faecalis coli sonei mirabilis albicans
Leaves 0.25 0.5 10 5 5 5
Flowers 0.125 0.5 2 2.5 2 0.5
Fruits 0.06 0.5 2 2.5 1 2
Caryophyllene 80 16 16 16 > 16 > 16
Terpinolene > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16
Linalool 2 4 2 2 2 4
?-Pinene > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16 > 16
?-Pinene 16 16 4 16 16 8
? -fenchyl alcohol 4 2 2 2 2 8
Gentamicin 0.004 0.004 0.008 0.008 0.008 -
Nystatin (antifungal drug) - - - - - 0.004

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